After restructuring FURG's General Statute in 2008, the laboratories associated with Graduate Program in Oceanology are now distributed, mostly, in several Cores of the Institute of Oceanology. The Program's professors are divided in the Physical Oceanography Center ("NOcFis"), Chemical Oceanography Center ("NOcQui"), Geological Oceanography Center ("NOG") and Biological Oceanography Center ("NOB"). In addition, there is a strong interaction with the Coastal Management Center and Renewable Resources Center (Fishery), as well as programs from other Institutes of FURG, such as Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Engineering. Below, we highlight the laboratories associated with the Graduate Program in Oceanology.
Laboratory of Climate and Ocean Studies ("LEOC"): LEOC, founded in 2010, is located in the building of the Center of Ocean and Climate Studies ("CEOCEAN"), linked to the Institute of Oceanology – FURG. CEOCEAN still hosts the High Latitude Oceanography Group (GOAL – www.goal.furg.br), the Southern Ocean and Marine Ice Study Group linked to the National Institute of Science and Technology of Cryosphere ("INCT" Cryosphere), the Brazilian Ocean Acidification Network (BrOA - www.broa.furg.br), and the Brazilian Coastal Monitoring System (SiMCosta - www.simcosta.furg.br). Researches developed at LEOC are focused on studies of ocean circulation and its role in climate, through the use of observational data, numerical modeling and remote sensing. The main areas of activity developed at LEOC are: Physical Oceanography, Marine Biogeochemistry, and Antarctic Science and Oceanography of High Latitudes, in which highlights the studies of meso to large-scale Oceanic Circulation, Oceanic Vortices, Western Contour Currents Energy, Water Masses Structure and Movement, Validation of Ocean Models and Reanalysis, Remote Sensing, Marine Bio-optics, Carbonate System Biogeochemistry, Anthropogenic Carbon and Ocean pH, and Ocean-atmosphere Interface CO2 Flux.
Laboratory of Numerical Analysis and Dynamic Systems ("LANSD"): A laboratory from FURG's Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics ("IMEF") that develops research associated with hydrodynamic and morphodynamics processes, and sea state conditions. There's also developed research related to transport of contaminated and non-contaminated properties in seawater, in addition to the study of renewable energies from marine sources and the development of numerical models applied to Engineering and Oceanography (www.lansd.furg.br).
Laboratory of Coastal and Estuarine Oceanography ("LOCOSTE"): The laboratory aims to study the dynamic processes of waters of estuarine and continental shelf areas and how these processes affect other areas of oceanographic science. These studies mainly cover the Patos Mirim lagoon system and the continental shelf of the Southwestern Atlantic, between Cabo Frio and the northern Argentine shelf. The development of these works uses: (a) data collected at sea from cruises and equipment anchorages; (b) application of numerical models. In addition to the scientific importance, several papers present an applied focus, above all, on environmental issues and the sustainable development of port activities. LOCOSTE has intensive exchanges with laboratories in other national and international institutions, participating in the South Atlantic Climate Change Consortium (SACC) sponsored by the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI); the Long-Term Ecological Research Program ("PELD"); the National Institute of Science and Technology for the Sea (INCT-Sea/Center of Integrated Oceanography-COI) and the Coastal Zones module of the INCT for Climate Changes and the Climate Network. In addition, there's at LOCOSTE the coordination of two national research networks financed by the Funding Authority for Studies and Projects ("FINEP"). The Network for Hydrodynamics, Ecology, Environmental Quality and Monitoring Studies in Aquatic Ecosystems – REHMANSA and; Management and Safety of Navigation and Water Transport: Environmentally Sustainable Development of Marine Fluvial Systems – TRANSAQUA.
Hydrochemistry Laboratory: The Hydrochemistry Laboratory is traditionally active in the investigation of chemical composition of water and sediments, as well as environmental quality of estuarine, coastal, oceanic, groundwater and effluent systems. The assessments are based on the levels of inorganic elements (nutrients, trace elements and their isotopes), in besides chemical speciation. It's recently been developed studies on flows of chemical elements in the water-sediment interface and transport of continental groundwater to the oceanic region, along with biogeochemical processes (production, sedimentation and remineralization of biogenic matter) in coastal and oceanic systems. Among them, we highlight the study of the effect of variability of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) on aluminum, iron and particulate biogenic matter distribution and cycling in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, developed within the project Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic – PIRATA. The group also maintains an effective participation in the GEOTRACES program.
Laboratory of Organic Microcontaminants and Aquatic Ecotoxicology ("CONECO"): Laboratory equipped for the organic microcontaminants study hydrocarbons, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polybrominated compounds, fecal steroids and antifouling biocides – TBT, Irgarol, Diuron, etc. – in environmental matrices. Some environmental effects of these contaminants are assessed through toxicity tests (ecotoxicology).
Laboratory of Cyanobacteria and Phycotoxins ("LCF"): This is a laboratory for cultivation and maintenance of strains of cyanobacteria and harmful marine algae, together with the execution of plant physiology experiments and production, determination, and toxicology testing with cyanotoxins and phycotoxins. In addition, it acts in the characterization of cyanobacterial blooms and specific studies of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins and phycotoxins centered on biotechnology, ecotoxicology, and animal and environmental health, through environmental collections. The laboratory is also focused on oceanic, coastal, and lagoon environmental monitoring in maricultures and fountains. It was created in 1986 and it's intended to provide space for the development of research projects for graduate programs of the Institute of Oceanography (www.cianobacterias.furg.br).
Laboratory of Ichthyoplankton Ecology ("LEI"): The laboratory began its activities in the late 70's and it's used for research and teaching activities. Research activities are centered on ecology of eggs elucidating aspects and fish larvae in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, in the adjacent coastal area and in the South Atlantic. The laboratory, with 42 m², has among the installed equipments, some main ones like stereo microscopes and the Image Analysis System. LEI operates several plankton sampling networks.
Laboratory of Geochemistry ("LGeo"): The Laboratory of Geochemistry is a 300 m² unit of the Laboratory of Geological Oceanography ("LOG") of Institute of Oceanography from FURG. This laboratory supports research and consulting activities in different areas of organic and inorganic geochemistry, such as environmental studies on pollution, geochemistry and heavy metal speciation; sediments quality; organic pollution; Petroleum and organic compounds degradation; molecular biomarkers; marine and aquatic systems' geochemistry; paleo-environmental evolution; atmosphere geochemistry and pollution; environmental quality and population health; environmental monitoring in marine, coastal and continental environments (waters, sediments, soils and biota); and dredging and environmental geochemistry.
Laboratory of Coastal Morphodynamics ("LMC"): The Laboratory of Coastal Morphodynamics is focused on studies of the transitional coastal zone and its estuaries, surf zones, and adjacent beaches. It covers aspects related to beach morphodynamic modifications, shore face, inner continental shelf, and natural and anthropic coastal water bodies in many time scales. Associated with the LMC is the Sedimentology Laboratory, which in addition to provide support for sedimentary analysis and morphology, it allows the development of research projects focused on Marine Mineral Resources focused on mineral resources associated with marine sediments. Currently, it develops the projects: 1) Risks associated with geological, geomorphological, and oceanographic processes in the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo, on the Island of Trindade and in the Archipelago of Martim Vaz; 2) Morphodynamics of sandy beaches of the Rio Grande do Sul state; 3) Geological and seismic survey of the inner continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul state, with emphasis on grain economic deposits (siliciclastic, bioclastic, and heavy minerals); 4) Morphodynamic limits of shoreface and its influence on coastal response to the sea level rise.
Laboratory of Geology and Paleontology ("LGP"): The laboratory works with stratigraphic analysis of the quaternary deposits of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, and the fossils and trace fossils found in it. It also works with taphonomic, paleoecological and paleoclimatic analyses based on fossils and trace fossils of vertebrates and invertebrates.
Laboratory of Paleoceanography and Palynology ("LPP"): The laboratory is the headquarters of a research group that focuses the study of the South-Brazilian Continental Margin during the late Quaternary. In its offshore portion, micropaleontological and geochemical proxies are used to investigate paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes. In the Coastal Plain, Palynology helps to elucidate the influence and chronology of marine transgressions and regressions on the continent.
Laboratory of Cryosphere Monitoring ("LaCrio"): The laboratory is located in the building of the Center of Ocean and Climate Studies ("CEOCEAN"), linked to the Geological Oceanography Center of the Institute of Oceanology – FURG. It acts on the development of methods for monitoring the planet ice sheets. The work is focused on two main advances: (1) Adaptation and development of new meteorological, glaciological and oceanographic instruments for surveys in glaciers, sea ice and fiords of Patagonia and Antarctica and; (2) Use of surveys with drones and images of several types of satellites to obtain dynamic information of these environments.
FURG's Multiuser Centers
In addition to the multi user centers linked to FURG's Pro-Rectory of Research and Graduate Studies highlighted below, new multi user spaces approved by the project funding CT-INFRA Public Call are available to students and researchers of the Program, namely: Radioisotope Laboratory, Multipurpose Laboratory for Screening and Storage of Samples and Numerical Modeling Laboratory, besides the acquisition of new oceanographic instrumentation for the Oceanographic Research Yacht Larus and the Vessel Atlântico Sul.
Southern Center of Electron Microscopy ("CEME-Sul") - https://cemesul.furg.br/
The Southern Center of Electron Microscopy provides equipment for electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques, as well as related ones. Given the multiuser and shared concepts, equipments can be used by researchers from FURG and other institutions upon submission and project approval.
Integrated Analysis Center - CIA – https://cia.furg.br/pt/
The Integrated Analysis Center was created in 2015. Its purpose is to offer conditions of use of equipment for chemical, physical, and biological analysis in activities related to research, teaching, extension and innovation. The center, with 700 m², has a multi user structure with shared use of equipments. There's the equipment for Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, the Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Surface Area Analysis, the equipment for Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), for High-resolution Continuum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS-AAS), and the equipment for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Oceanographic Research Fleet
The Oceanographic Research Vessel Atlântico Sul is a trawler type of vessel, built in 1976. With 36m long, 8m beam, and 4.3m moulded depth, it has a crew of 12 people and the possibility to house up to 14 researchers. Its maximum draft is 4.5m, reaching a maximum speed of 11 knots, with autonomy of 25 days. Its basement stores up to 50 m³, the oil tank capacity is 120 tons, and the transport capacity of 38 m³ of water. The Oceanographic Research Vessel Atlântico Sul is able to perform several research tasks, with a MWM td 440 motor (8810 hp - 870 rpm), 2 MWM-229-6 auxiliary motors (120 hp) and 2 generators (60 kVA, 220 Vac), being able to operate distinct equipments. The fishing winch, with MWM td 232-12 motor (350 hp), has drum capacity of 2000m of 3/4" wire. The oceanographic winch, with autonomous hydraulic drive, has drum capacity of 4000m 1/4" wire, and speed wire up to 45 m/min with 1,640 kg load. It has electro-hydraulic trawl eye winch, with net drum with hydraulic drive for 3000m of 12 mm (coaxial cable). The ship has a system of 24 GoFlo bottles and Kevlar cable acquired by National Institute of Science and Technology for the Sea/Center of Integrated Oceanography, as recommended by the international program GEOTRACES.
The room for hydroacoustic scientific equipment is about 8m² and houses the Simrad EK 500 scientific 38-kHz and 120-kHz echo sounding system, and the MKT-21 ((Murayama Denky) marine water thermograph. The wet lab has about 16 m², and allows the treatment of samples, filtration and processing of newly collected material. On the other hand, the dry lab has 12 m², and allows the installation of computers and other equipments for data collection. Besides the scientific equipments, the Atlântico Sul has the following fishing equipments: system for trawl eye; EQ 100 Simrad 49 kHz probe; ES 700 Simrad 70 kHz probe; and SL 490 Simrad 49 kHz sonar.
The Oceanographic Research Yacht Larus was built in 1978. This drag and hydrographic yacht has a length of 15.32m, 5.0m beam and 2.5m moulded depth. Its hull is fiberglass, with a maximum draft of 1.40m. It reaches a maximum speed of 14.5 knots and an economical speed of 11 knots, with 300 miles range. The oil tank capacity is 2150 liters, and the water tank holds 1000 liters. Larus has 4 crew members and houses 6 researchers. Its propulsion is electric traction, with 2 Mercedes-Benz engines (240 hp each), and auxiliary Agrale M93 diesel engine (13hp generator) with WEG generators (9hp 110v single phase). Larus has a fishing and oceanographic winch with capacity to lift approximately 2 tones. It has fishing equipment with an echo sounder EX, SIMRAD with dry paper record and echo sounder with color monitor, mod. JFV-60.
Besides RV Atlântico Sul and oceanographic Research Yacht Larus, in 2011, new vessels were incorporated into the fleet of FURG and, consequently, in the Graduation Program. One of 5 m with 90 hp engine to act in the estuarine region and adjacent shallow coastal zone, and two fishing vessels of approximately 22 m in length, which will be adapted to act mainly in research conducted in the coastal zone and the continental shelf.
The ship Ciências do Mar I is a vessel intended for the teaching of Oceanography, built in 2014 at the INACE shipyard in Ceará. With 32 m of length, 7.85 m of beam and 4.3 m of moulded depth, it has a crew of 8 people and may house up to 18 researchers. Its maximum draft is 2.9 m, with autonomy of 25 days. The ship Ciências Do Mar I is able to perform several teaching tasks and it is an initiative to allow the experience of marine science students in the Southern Region of Brazil. More information about the oceanographic fleet provided by FURG for its undergraduate and graduate programs can be obtained at: https://esantarfrota.furg.br/missao.
In 1975, the construction of Carreiros Campus began. Its activities started in 1978, with the inauguration of the first buildings of the Atlantic Oceanographic Base. In 2009, the project to expand the Central Library building began to be developed. Its construction began at the end of the same year because the previous building no longer had infrastructure to support the growth of the collection, since new courses were implemented and, consequently, the university population increased. Thus, there was a need for expansion of the building to meet this demand. The Central Library is dedicated to the service of all undergraduate and graduate programs, gathering a collection of books, journals, CD-ROMs, DVDs, databases, maps, Braille works, among others, covering the various areas of knowledge.
Through the online catalog, available at the address http://www.argo.furg.br, the ARGO system offers consultations to the collection. Since the end of 2005, FURG began to receive support for the Electronic Theses and Dissertations Program (BDCT) with IBICT resources, from MEC. Today, all the computers of the Program, of professors and students, are connected with the information provided by the agreements of CAPES, mainly by Science Direct through CAPES-Periodicals.
Oceanography Sectoral Library
In 1991, at the request of the Department of Oceanography of FURG (current Institute of Oceanography), the organization of a sectoral library began with focus on the area of Oceanography and Marine Sciences. Thus, on May 10, 1992, the Sectoral Library was inaugurated. Through an agreement with the Secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (SECIRM), signed in 1997, it was guaranteed the signing of several titles of journals, which around 2001 began to be accessed electronically through the portal of CAPES Periodicals. New titles and materials on other media (CDs, DVDs, etc.) were added to the initial collection, resulting in a rich and very important selection, to the point of characterizing this sectoral library as a reference center in the area of Marine Sciences for the entire southern region of Brazil.
This library currently has a collection of approximately 3000 books, Theses, Dissertations and Monographs. In addition, it has 300 subscriptions to national and international scientific and informative journals. Also, the library has several computers that are directly connected to the FURG Information Technology core (NTI/FURG), allowing access to the Internet. The sectorial library also has a bibliographic consultation system that allows access to the “Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA)" and "Life Science Abstracts" indexes, as well as to the CAPES Periodicals Portal.
Currently, the collection of the Sectoral Library concentrates materials from the PPG in Biological Oceanography, PPG in Oceanology; PPG in Aquaculture and PPG in Environmental Management, as well as materials from the Master's Course in Ocean Engineering, Aquatic Ecology, Geography and others. In a complementary way, much of the library collection is also consulted by students of other PPG from FURG, such as Environmental Education, Geography, Ocean Engineering, Aquatic Ecology, Biology of Continental Aquatic Environments, etc. Annually the library collection is updated based on the demands indicated on the ARGO portal by the professors.
Sectoral Library of the Oceanographic Museum
The Oceanographic Museum was founded on September 8, 1953, and was donated to FURG in 1973, four years after the University's official foundation. It is part of the Complex of Museums and associated centers of FURG, which include the Nautical Museum, The Eco-Museum of Ilha da Pólvora, the Antarctic Museum and The CRAM - Recovery Center of Marine Animals. Inserted in this context is the Sectoral Library of the Oceanographic Museum Prof. Eliezer de Carvalho Rios, which is linked to the System of Libraries - SiB. It was created in 1973 and, until 2012, it occupied an area of 33.75 m². Then, it underwent a major renovation and obtained a gain of 22.32 m². Today, it occupies an area of 56.07 m². Due to the expansion of its physical space, it was possible to redistribute its collection with the disposal of books and other materials in the first room of the library and, in the old part, the collection of journals was kept. The library has a rich collection specialized in Malacology (shellfish) and also serves some of the other areas of knowledge, making it available only for local consultation. The Sectoral Library of the Oceanographic Museum Professor Eliezer De Carvalho Rios is one of the 8 libraries of the system of libraries - SiB from FURG. Specialized in the area of Malacology, it serves the researchers of the museum and the university community in general. The collection consists of 4678 works resulting in a total of 5283 copies, with the following highlights: a collection of 1647 titles of books and 514 titles of periodicals.